Recurrent pregnancy loss is a common problem among women. It is the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies. It can be caused by various reasons, from medical conditions to lifestyle choices. Several treatments are available for RPL. Usually, your doctor will use particular medications to help with RPL. Nidhee M. Sachdev MD may use these medications in combination with other treatments.
There are many reasons why women have recurrent miscarriages:
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that affects women of childbearing age. It can cause irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and miscarriage. The ovaries produce a high level of male hormones called androgens in women with PCOS. The ovaries have two hormones, estrogen, and progesterone, which work together to keep your egg healthy and help prepare it for implantation. An imbalance between these two hormones can affect the lining of the uterus, making it more susceptible to miscarriage or early labor.
This condition is often caused by certain medications that interfere with thyroid hormone production. It may also be an underlying cause of recurrent pregnancy loss. Hypothyroidism can lead to low blood pressure and make it difficult for you to carry a baby full term.
Uterine abnormalities or malformations
Uterine abnormalities or malformations can be the cause of recurrent pregnancy loss. These include abnormal shape, size, and position of the uterus and its muscular function. Uterine abnormalities are often detected during routine ultrasound scans and only rarely require additional tests to confirm their presence. In rare cases, an abnormality will be found on a biopsy sample taken from the uterus.
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that grow in the walls of the uterus (womb). They can be mild or malignant (non-benign). Most uterine fibroids do not cause symptoms, but they may increase the risk of miscarriage by increasing blood flow around the placenta. Increased blood flow can interfere with the implantation of a fertilized egg into the uterus. Uterine fibroids that overgrow may rupture during pregnancy and cause infection, leading to miscarriage or stillbirth.
Endometriosis is a condition that results in abnormal tissue growth outside the uterus (uterus). This abnormal growth can cause infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss by interfering with regular menstrual cycles and preventing the implantation of a fertilized egg in the womb (womb). Endometrial tissue grows after every menstrual cycle causing painful periods and heavy bleeding, leading to miscarriage.
Immune system disorders
Women with certain immune system disorders may have an increased risk of miscarriage. For example, women with antibodies to the Zika virus or immune system disorders associated with HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections may have an increased risk of miscarriage (Neenachai 2015).
There is no single cause for repeated pregnancy losses. Researchers believe most miscarriages occur due to a combination of factors, including problems with the mother’s immune system and genetic factors. You may be at a higher risk of repeated pregnancy loss if these factors are in your family history. Your healthcare giver will recommend treatments that can help you get pregnant again by targeting the problem areas. Contact OC Fertility® and schedule an appointment with a doctor to learn more about recurrent pregnancy loss.